It is defined as the use of living system for the production of goods and products .It is a branch of biology which deals with the technique of using live organisms, enzymes orbiological processes to develop products and provide services for human welfare.Making curds or bread which involves microorganisms can be considered as the oldest form of technology.we alsofind the application of fermentation in the production of wine and other alcoholic beverages.
Most of the biotechnological processes gradually became more sophisticated.They are being used toharvest various valuable materials like vitamins and antibiotics produced by microbes.Today biotechnology is undergoing resurgence in the wide range of applications.Biotechnology involves DNA manipulation s (recombinant DNA technology), tissue culture , protoplasts fusion, cell catalysis ,immobilizer enzymes , proteins engineering,etc.
Many techniques are included under biotechnology , for example ,in vitro fertilization leading to a’test tube’ baby , synthesizing a gene , developing a DNA vaccine or correcting a defective gene, etc.Advancement in plant tissue culture has enabled plants breeders to create new crops which grow more rapidly , require less fertilizer and thrive in poor soils.Many techniques included underbiotechnology have wide applications in the field of agriculture, medicine, chemical industry,pharmaceutical industry and environment.
The new definition of modern biotechnology given by EFB(The European Federt ofBiotechnology) is :’Biotechnolology is the integration of natural sciences and organism ,cells,parts thereof and molecular analogue for products and services.
How does Apple Face ID works
Ever wondered how does Apple Face ID works. Apple first introduced the technology of Face ID for authentication purposes. Since then many smartphone manufacturers started giving Face ID for their devices in the budget range. Hail that notch which took the industry to cut the portion of the screen and play as bezelless display. In this article we will take a closer look of that notch particularly the Face ID and unravel the working of that technology. Will also be looking at some of the downsides of having a Face ID, cause ofcourse noting is safe in this world.
Most of our digital information are stored on Phones and it’s important to protect that information. Face ID is the next big step in that direction. Face ID provides intuitive and secure authentication enabled by the state-of-the-art TrueDepth camera system with advanced technologies to accurately map the geometry of your face.
With a simple glance, Face ID securely unlocks your iPhone X. You can use it to authorize purchases on the Apple Store.
The dot projector embedded in the notch produces over 30,000 invisible rays to create a depth map of your face and also stores an infrared image of your face. Apple’s A11 bionic chip also plays a significant role, it transforms the depth mapping and the infrared image into a mathematical representation and compares that representation to the enrolled facial data.
So what happens if my face changes like if i trim by beard or apply makeup or some crazy stuff, or even if I show half of the face, how does it recognise me?
The answer lies in the fact that it maps your face but does not open until you open it manually using your pin, it then knows you are the authorised personnel and it updates the mathematical representation, so it remebers how your face look under different conditions. It actually keeps learning over time or we can say updating that mathematical representation over time. So it becomes highly accurate.
The mapping of face is a very high dimensional data and needs a lot of computing power to work fairly fast. A part of the A11 Bionic chip’s neural engine — protected within the Secure Enclave, performs this task with an ease. Face ID is designed to work with hats, scarves, glasses, contact lenses, and many sunglasses. Furthermore, it’s designed to work indoors, outdoors, and even in total darkness.
To start using Face ID, you first need to enroll your face. You may do this during the initial set up process, or at a later time by going to Settings > Face ID & Passcode. Face id works best at arms length and very well even when the phone is inclined to certain extent.
Security is important to protect information on our devices. Face ID uses the TrueDepth camera and deep learning for a secure authentication solution. Face ID data – including mathematical representations of your face – is fully encrypted and protected with a key available only to the Secure Enclave.
The probability that a random person in the population could unlock your device is approximately 1 in 1,000,000 which 1 in 50,000 for Touch ID. Face id only takes five unsuccessful attempts to prompt you to enter your passcode.
Face id also looks at your eyes when unlocking the device, so if you’re asleep then for sure nobody will be able to unlock it, unless they wake you up. Face id cannot be fooled by photographs as it does not have any depth, it’s designed to protect against spoofing by masks or other techniques.
Furthermore, you must enter your passcode for additional security validation when:
- The device has just been turned on for first time or restarted.
- The device has been idle for more than 48 hours.
- The device has received a remote lock command.
- After five unsuccessful attempts to match a face.
- After initiating power off/Emergency SOS by pressing and holding either volume button and the side button simultaneously for 2 seconds.
Some less known fact about Face ID is that the data doesn’t leave your device and is never backed up to iCloud or anywhere else. Only in the case that you wish to provide Face ID diagnostic data to AppleCare for support only then information will be transferred from your device. And even in that case data isn’t automatically sent to Apple; you have to first review and approve the diagnostic data before it’s sent.
If your iphone gets lost, then you can choose to delete the data on the device from another Apple device or Apple care cneted, the face id data also gets deleted.
Even if you don’t use Face ID the true depth camera is active all the time, it looks for your face, it dime the light when you are not looking at it, or pause the video when you are not looking at it.
Other third party app developers can also use the face id for authentication purpose, but the face id data is not shared with the developers.
The true depth camera is safe to use under normal conditions, it has gone through international safety standards, the infrared rays will not cause any harm to eyes or skin, due to its very low output power.
Some cameras may be able to detect the infrared light though we may not see it directly and it is normal.
Users with physical limitations can also use the Face ID, the enrollment doesn’t require the full head range of motion it mostly depends on the way you look at your device at the time of registering your face.
Drawbacks of Face ID
The Face ID can be easily tricked by twins or children under 13 having the same statiscal features. May also be tricked with spoofing neural networks which approximates your face fretty accurately. Face ID cannot be used for authorisation of family purchases. And it definitely does not work in landscape mode as they have shown in the commercial.
Apple’s face id is the next big step in security and authentication. The whole Face ID concept is new, as of now a lot of manufacturers started using the face id as a new security measure to unlock your device, the future of Face ID seems bright.
BARRIERS TO SUCCESS IN 3D PRINTING
The market in 3D printing is growing day by day with new startups each month. This industry holds the potential to capture the major market in the coming future in the automobile, aerospace, jewelry, architecture, medical, foundry, the electronic industry as well as in the market of production of household items.
But there are certain limitations to the great success, faced by the 3D printing industry today, the barriers which should be broken by the industry in the near future to build their empire strong and competitive. So let us take a leap from the world of words to the real world and see what are the challenges faced by the 3D printing industry today which must be overcome.
Scale and Size
In 3D printing, only one item is produced at a time. To print multiple objects at a time you will need multiple machines working simultaneously like a DNC machine. The cost of a single 3D printing machine is much higher than a CNC machine working on the same material. All this means due to the restriction of high initial cost only one object can be produced at a time. Multiple items cannot be simultaneously produced on a 3D printer, this is not the only limitation with respect to scale and size. Another limitation is the size of the product or the object being printed.
If the polymer is produced, the majority of 3D printers which are present today can only print items measuring up to 1 cubic yard and only 1 cubic foot if the metal is used as the printing material.
3D Printed Objects May Require Heavy Duty Post Processing
If anyone has seen 3D printing live, will know that the finishing quality of the printed objects is not that good. These products cannot be used directly by the consumer without processing done on it. Also, the problem isn’t only the lack of surface finish or polish, it is more about the dimensional accuracy produced by these 3D printing methods.
3D Printing Belies Economies of Scale
The most advantageous benefit of 3D printing, the sword of this king is the fact that this process allows maximum customisation potential. Unfortunately, this same fact carries one of the more potent disadvantages of 3D printing. That is the absence of economies of scale.
In simple language economies of scale is the cost advantage gained by the manufacturers when they increase the size and scale of the manufacturing system. This means to improve the profit margins, a manufacturer can mass produce them. So, decreasing the cost per item he has to put in and increasing the profit.
Large Scale Adoption Will Result In Significant Job Loss
Let us take for example, in a factory two type of scrap material exit the belt. A worker separates the two and places them in two different containers. If now the company engineer automates this system by placing some kind of separating machine at the exit, then the owner can remove this worker, resulting in the loss 0f job by the poor worker. So an innovation in the present technology or the process ends up taking away jobs amongst the masses.
This has happened throughout the human history. It happened when industries automated their processes, the same happened during the Industrial Revolution, during the Digital Revolution, and surely will happen in the future too. The machine operators will lose their jobs with the development and availability of 3D printers.
3D printing is also known as additive manufacturing, which means building in additive fashion i.e. layer by layer addition of material from the ground up. While the technology is a major process breakthrough, there is a very limited number of materials today which allows 3D printing.
Some materials in which 3D printing is done are – ABS plastic, polyamide, epoxy resins, steel, wax, titanium and some more. The list seems interesting but very limited.
How small can you go in 3D printing? If you’re using a typical desktop 3D printer (or an industrial Stratasys FDM printer), the nozzle is about 0.35 mm in diameter. This means the sharpest outside corner that can reproduce is also .35mm in diameter, we cannot produce dimension less than this. On other precise systems, you could reasonably expect this figure to be around 0.116 to 0.175 mm in diameter.
Cost of Buying and Setting up A 3D Printer Is Very High
The cost factor is the biggest disadvantage of 3D printing. Yes, it is true that over its whole life a 3D printer pays for itself more than once, but the initial cost still remains something which needs to be put in once, at a time. Since the initial cost is such a high, the risk of setting a costly business comes free of cost.
For example, the top end 3D printing devices can cost between $300,000 and $2 million. Even the consumable items can end up costing a very high price ranging from $100 to $200 for every pound of material consumed.
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