Imagine a time when you can 3D print anything and everything in your own house or your neighborhood.If you need a dish plate, a broken piece of your device, a machine part or just a toy. Or why just a toy, you can 3D print your jewelry, your broken car parts, or your dream house in which you want to live your whole life. Or why just a house, your doctor can print a prosthetic arm, skin or an organ in the worst case you need it. Many of these things are achieved and the rest of these will be achieved in near future and this time is not far away from the present. Then the only limitation to print will be your imagination. 3D printing is revolutionizing the present with its miracle like transformation in technology. This article will cover all you need to know about 3D printing and the objects you can 3D print in various industries in short.
WHAT IS 3D PRINTING?
3D printing (or additive manufacturing) is a process which is used to print an object in three-dimension, layer by layer under computer control. Unlike material removed from a stock in the conventional machining process, 3D printing or additive manufacturing builds a three-dimensional object from computer-aided design model by successively adding material layer by layer.
Objects can be of any shape and are produced using digital model data from a 3D model. It can also be produced by an electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File (AMF) file. Stereolithography (STL) is one of the most common file types that 3D printers can read.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF 3D PRINTING
3D printable models may be created in many ways. It can be created with a computer-aided design (CAD) package, via a 3D scanner, or by a plain digital camera and photogrammetry software. To reduce the errors, 3D printed models should be created with CAD and the errors can be corrected easily before printing, allowing verification in the design of the object before it is printed.
The CAD file needs to be converted into the STL file and this needs to be processed by a piece of software called a “slicer,” which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces a G-code file containing instructions to a specific type of 3D printer. During the 3D printing process, this G-code is used to instruct the printer, which is done using a 3Dprinting client software.
The resolution produced in 3-dimensional printing is sufficient for many applications, but when a slightly oversized version of the object is desired then removing material to get higher precession and better surface finish with a higher-resolution subtractive process is better.
What objects can a 3D printer print?
A coffee mug, high heels, hanging lights, iPad stand, acoustic guitar, a wheel rim or a whole car, a house plan, a cement wall or a whole house, a prosthetic arm, synthetic skin, bone….. the list is too long. So let us see a detailed list in each of the industry, what we can print and what cannot be printed.
Check this list-
1.Daily household things
It will be fun if we can customise our daily used objects as per our desire. You will not need to search some remote shop or ask your friend where I can find it. Your object, your design, your colors, sounds nice, but of course, we cannot print with any material. Hope this can also be done in 3D printing in coming years. Let us see a list of some objects-
1. Your custom iPhone cover
2. Coffee mug
3. High heels
4. Hanging lights
6. iPad stand
7. Shakuhachi Flute
8. Acoustic Guitar
10. 3D Printed Bikini – N21
11. Soap dish
12. Earbud holder
And many more beautiful things like these-
modular mounting system
big straw glasses
wooh.. that was a lot of things.
2. Automobile Industry
companies are adopting 3D printing for jigs and fixtures.3D printing jigs and fixtures can lower costs, provide lighter and more ergonomic tools, and more. Furthermore, it has shown a consistent reduction in lead-time by 40% to 90% and cost reduction up to 60%. 3D printing rapidly designs a prototype saving precious time of the design team allowing them to concentrate on other important design aspects. In 2014, Local Motors printed the first 3D-printed car from an ABS carbon-fiber blend (about 80/20 respectively) called Strati.
Today, the company has three models and an autonomous electric-powered shuttle named Olli. Also, Honda released a newer version of the Micro-Commuter in October 2016. A single-seater with about a 50-mile driving range, the body and majority of the panels on the Micro-Commuter are 3D printed.
Yes these cars are 3D printed
3. Architecture Industry
Architects, Engineers, and Construction (AEC) professionals understand the paramount importance of accurate and tangible scale models. It helps them and their clients visualize ideas realistically and vividly. Traditional ways of designing and assembling a scale-model are time-consuming, and are very costly, and rely heavily on skilled craftsmen.
3D printing will revolutionize the way architects designs and innovate their ideas. 3D printing for architects empowers them easily create complex, accurate and durable scale models quickly and cost-effectively. The 3D printed models can be used to demonstrate and impress the clients, seizing more opportunities, all this in a matter of clicks.
4. Aerospace Industry
From complex engine parts to cabin interiors, aerospace companies are turning to the capabilities of 3D printing to produce better performing parts for their commercial aircraft and/or spacecraft. The ongoing development of the industry itself will surely lead to more breakthroughs in the near future. In the aerospace industry, the benefits of adopting 3D printing will be reduced material weight, part consolidation, improved part performance, virtual warehouse, and many more.
5. Electronics Industry
With 3D printing replacing the conventional manufacturing processes, in the electronic industry opportunities are growing in terms of ease of customising a product for a user or a customer. The production of relatively low volumes is possible in the industry because of 3D printing. Like for example, if the small startup needs to make 30 pieces of their product, by the conventional process the initial setup would be too costly and it will not justify the cost of a single piece of product.
Producing sand molds and cast metal parts is a relatively straightforward job and suitable for automated methods. The most common method is to produce aluminum patterns, fabrication of which is often very difficult, expensive and time-consuming. These aluminum patterns are machined using a CNC machine. The biggest problems with this approach are the high cost and long lead time. On the CNC machine, the intricate gate and runner systems cannot be produced. So, the gate and runner system are cut from Ren board and then hand carved to the finished shape.
The problems associated with traditional pattern production are many and this process takes much time and money. So foundries have long been interested in 3D printing. With 3D printing systems available, foundries can fabricate patterns with either inkjet-based technology or FDM Technology. This results in savings, in cost, labor and time, ultimately speeding new product development.
3D printers are used to manufacture a variety of products in the medical industry. It includes those products with complex geometry or features that match a patient’s unique anatomy.Sometimes a standard design is copied to make multiple identical copies. Other devices are called patient-specific devices. This type of devices is created from a specific patient’s imaging data.
Commercially available 3D printed medical devices include:
Implants (e.g., cranial plates or hip joints), and
External prostheses (e.g., hands).
Manufacturing of living organs such as a heart or liver via 3D printing process is in early stage of development. Scientists are still researching such methods and process.
Things that can be 3d printed are-
Tissues with blood vessels
Low–Cost Prosthetic Parts
Many startups have been seen in this field recently.A 3D printing startup from Hong Kong, called POESIS, has successfully completed its crowdfunding campaign for a smart 3D printing jewelry system. This system allows anyone to easily create unique and resilient rings and bracelets. A study by YouGov, a prominent data research firm, indicated that marketing efforts by high-end jewelers for Millennials are proving to be inefficient. This market-segment is spending approximately $49 billion annually on products within various luxury categories, however, only a limited percentage of this money is being spent on fine jewelry.
How does Apple Face ID works
Ever wondered how does Apple Face ID works. Apple first introduced the technology of Face ID for authentication purposes. Since then many smartphone manufacturers started giving Face ID for their devices in the budget range. Hail that notch which took the industry to cut the portion of the screen and play as bezelless display. In this article we will take a closer look of that notch particularly the Face ID and unravel the working of that technology. Will also be looking at some of the downsides of having a Face ID, cause ofcourse noting is safe in this world.
Most of our digital information are stored on Phones and it’s important to protect that information. Face ID is the next big step in that direction. Face ID provides intuitive and secure authentication enabled by the state-of-the-art TrueDepth camera system with advanced technologies to accurately map the geometry of your face.
With a simple glance, Face ID securely unlocks your iPhone X. You can use it to authorize purchases on the Apple Store.
The dot projector embedded in the notch produces over 30,000 invisible rays to create a depth map of your face and also stores an infrared image of your face. Apple’s A11 bionic chip also plays a significant role, it transforms the depth mapping and the infrared image into a mathematical representation and compares that representation to the enrolled facial data.
So what happens if my face changes like if i trim by beard or apply makeup or some crazy stuff, or even if I show half of the face, how does it recognise me?
The answer lies in the fact that it maps your face but does not open until you open it manually using your pin, it then knows you are the authorised personnel and it updates the mathematical representation, so it remebers how your face look under different conditions. It actually keeps learning over time or we can say updating that mathematical representation over time. So it becomes highly accurate.
The mapping of face is a very high dimensional data and needs a lot of computing power to work fairly fast. A part of the A11 Bionic chip’s neural engine — protected within the Secure Enclave, performs this task with an ease. Face ID is designed to work with hats, scarves, glasses, contact lenses, and many sunglasses. Furthermore, it’s designed to work indoors, outdoors, and even in total darkness.
To start using Face ID, you first need to enroll your face. You may do this during the initial set up process, or at a later time by going to Settings > Face ID & Passcode. Face id works best at arms length and very well even when the phone is inclined to certain extent.
Security is important to protect information on our devices. Face ID uses the TrueDepth camera and deep learning for a secure authentication solution. Face ID data – including mathematical representations of your face – is fully encrypted and protected with a key available only to the Secure Enclave.
The probability that a random person in the population could unlock your device is approximately 1 in 1,000,000 which 1 in 50,000 for Touch ID. Face id only takes five unsuccessful attempts to prompt you to enter your passcode.
Face id also looks at your eyes when unlocking the device, so if you’re asleep then for sure nobody will be able to unlock it, unless they wake you up. Face id cannot be fooled by photographs as it does not have any depth, it’s designed to protect against spoofing by masks or other techniques.
Furthermore, you must enter your passcode for additional security validation when:
- The device has just been turned on for first time or restarted.
- The device has been idle for more than 48 hours.
- The device has received a remote lock command.
- After five unsuccessful attempts to match a face.
- After initiating power off/Emergency SOS by pressing and holding either volume button and the side button simultaneously for 2 seconds.
Some less known fact about Face ID is that the data doesn’t leave your device and is never backed up to iCloud or anywhere else. Only in the case that you wish to provide Face ID diagnostic data to AppleCare for support only then information will be transferred from your device. And even in that case data isn’t automatically sent to Apple; you have to first review and approve the diagnostic data before it’s sent.
If your iphone gets lost, then you can choose to delete the data on the device from another Apple device or Apple care cneted, the face id data also gets deleted.
Even if you don’t use Face ID the true depth camera is active all the time, it looks for your face, it dime the light when you are not looking at it, or pause the video when you are not looking at it.
Other third party app developers can also use the face id for authentication purpose, but the face id data is not shared with the developers.
The true depth camera is safe to use under normal conditions, it has gone through international safety standards, the infrared rays will not cause any harm to eyes or skin, due to its very low output power.
Some cameras may be able to detect the infrared light though we may not see it directly and it is normal.
Users with physical limitations can also use the Face ID, the enrollment doesn’t require the full head range of motion it mostly depends on the way you look at your device at the time of registering your face.
Drawbacks of Face ID
The Face ID can be easily tricked by twins or children under 13 having the same statiscal features. May also be tricked with spoofing neural networks which approximates your face fretty accurately. Face ID cannot be used for authorisation of family purchases. And it definitely does not work in landscape mode as they have shown in the commercial.
Apple’s face id is the next big step in security and authentication. The whole Face ID concept is new, as of now a lot of manufacturers started using the face id as a new security measure to unlock your device, the future of Face ID seems bright.
It is defined as the use of living system for the production of goods and products .It is a branch of biology which deals with the technique of using live organisms, enzymes orbiological processes to develop products and provide services for human welfare.Making curds or bread which involves microorganisms can be considered as the oldest form of technology.we alsofind the application of fermentation in the production of wine and other alcoholic beverages.
Most of the biotechnological processes gradually became more sophisticated.They are being used toharvest various valuable materials like vitamins and antibiotics produced by microbes.Today biotechnology is undergoing resurgence in the wide range of applications.Biotechnology involves DNA manipulation s (recombinant DNA technology), tissue culture , protoplasts fusion, cell catalysis ,immobilizer enzymes , proteins engineering,etc.
Many techniques are included under biotechnology , for example ,in vitro fertilization leading to a’test tube’ baby , synthesizing a gene , developing a DNA vaccine or correcting a defective gene, etc.Advancement in plant tissue culture has enabled plants breeders to create new crops which grow more rapidly , require less fertilizer and thrive in poor soils.Many techniques included underbiotechnology have wide applications in the field of agriculture, medicine, chemical industry,pharmaceutical industry and environment.
The new definition of modern biotechnology given by EFB(The European Federt ofBiotechnology) is :’Biotechnolology is the integration of natural sciences and organism ,cells,parts thereof and molecular analogue for products and services.
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