Vehicle-to-vehicle communication is an automotive technology which allows automobiles to “talk” to each other. V2V communications form a wireless network on the roads by connecting with each other. These networks are also called as vehicular ad hoc networks, VANETs. The systems will use the unlicensed frequency region of the 5.9 GHz band set aside by the United States Congress, also used by WiFi. The US V2V standard, commonly known as WAVE (“Wireless Access for Vehicular Environments”)
A careful study of the road accidents taking place all over the world has revealed that majority of them take place because the action taken by the vehicle ahead is not understood clearly by the following vehicle. Hence in exigency, the driver of the following vehicle fails to take an action that is complementary to the one taken by the front vehicle. If the actions of the vehicle travelling ahead could be communicated clearly to the following vehicle, will be helpful in avoiding such accidents. To achieve this purpose, vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication system is developed.
An extension of V2V is V2X (Vehicle to Everything). Cars will talk to other, exchanging data with each other and alerting drivers to potential collisions. They’ll talk to sensors on signs on stoplights, bus stops, even ones embedded in the roads to get traffic updates and rerouting alerts. And they can communicate with your house or office, and smart devices or will act as digital assistant, gathering information you need to go about your day.
Your car can route your travel, or reroute it when you’re on traffic or when you get behind schedule, when you are just getting ready for your office. It can give you an update from your calendar of your schedule.
Automobiles today have an impressive amount of processing power. More than 100 million lines of software code help run the typical luxury vehicle. The amount of information flowing, back and forth from them will skyrocket. And so this will demand for the cloud’s scaleability of storage capabilities.
The cloud also provides sophisticated processing and analytical capabilities. And the cloud is also the home for building and developing the apps and programs used by cars on the road.
This will help cities and states cut down on congestion and improve safety. Cars will automatically transmit data such as position, direction, and speed, and will send alerts to each other if a crash seems possible. This future of vehicle-to-vehicle, or V2V communication, is already in the works, with the U.S. Department of Transportation announcing early this year that it plans to start taking steps to enable V2V communication.
Limitations of V2V:
Threat of hacking: Being IT dependent system, they are vulnerable to attacks of hacking or cracking. In such a situation, the hacker can alter the information being displayed in the vehicle thereby causing a disaster.
Additional cost: It is estimated that the cost of installing vehicle to vehicle communication system would be in the range of 1800 USD to 21000 USD depending upon the vehicle model and complexity of the system.
The frequency band set aside for this system can’t support a large number of vehicles simultaneously.
As of this writing it is unclear till now whether creation and maintenance of the supporting network would be publicly or privately funded. Automotive manufacturers working on ITS and V2V include GM, BMW, Audi, Daimler and Volvo.
V2V communication provides opportunities as well as challenges for the industries. We can expect to experience a fully mature V2V communication system till 2020.
It is defined as the use of living system for the production of goods and products .It is a branch of biology which deals with the technique of using live organisms, enzymes orbiological processes to develop products and provide services for human welfare.Making curds or bread which involves microorganisms can be considered as the oldest form of technology.we alsofind the application of fermentation in the production of wine and other alcoholic beverages.
Most of the biotechnological processes gradually became more sophisticated.They are being used toharvest various valuable materials like vitamins and antibiotics produced by microbes.Today biotechnology is undergoing resurgence in the wide range of applications.Biotechnology involves DNA manipulation s (recombinant DNA technology), tissue culture , protoplasts fusion, cell catalysis ,immobilizer enzymes , proteins engineering,etc.
Many techniques are included under biotechnology , for example ,in vitro fertilization leading to a’test tube’ baby , synthesizing a gene , developing a DNA vaccine or correcting a defective gene, etc.Advancement in plant tissue culture has enabled plants breeders to create new crops which grow more rapidly , require less fertilizer and thrive in poor soils.Many techniques included underbiotechnology have wide applications in the field of agriculture, medicine, chemical industry,pharmaceutical industry and environment.
The new definition of modern biotechnology given by EFB(The European Federt ofBiotechnology) is :’Biotechnolology is the integration of natural sciences and organism ,cells,parts thereof and molecular analogue for products and services.
BARRIERS TO SUCCESS IN 3D PRINTING
The market in 3D printing is growing day by day with new startups each month. This industry holds the potential to capture the major market in the coming future in the automobile, aerospace, jewelry, architecture, medical, foundry, the electronic industry as well as in the market of production of household items.
But there are certain limitations to the great success, faced by the 3D printing industry today, the barriers which should be broken by the industry in the near future to build their empire strong and competitive. So let us take a leap from the world of words to the real world and see what are the challenges faced by the 3D printing industry today which must be overcome.
Scale and Size
In 3D printing, only one item is produced at a time. To print multiple objects at a time you will need multiple machines working simultaneously like a DNC machine. The cost of a single 3D printing machine is much higher than a CNC machine working on the same material. All this means due to the restriction of high initial cost only one object can be produced at a time. Multiple items cannot be simultaneously produced on a 3D printer, this is not the only limitation with respect to scale and size. Another limitation is the size of the product or the object being printed.
If the polymer is produced, the majority of 3D printers which are present today can only print items measuring up to 1 cubic yard and only 1 cubic foot if the metal is used as the printing material.
3D Printed Objects May Require Heavy Duty Post Processing
If anyone has seen 3D printing live, will know that the finishing quality of the printed objects is not that good. These products cannot be used directly by the consumer without processing done on it. Also, the problem isn’t only the lack of surface finish or polish, it is more about the dimensional accuracy produced by these 3D printing methods.
3D Printing Belies Economies of Scale
The most advantageous benefit of 3D printing, the sword of this king is the fact that this process allows maximum customisation potential. Unfortunately, this same fact carries one of the more potent disadvantages of 3D printing. That is the absence of economies of scale.
In simple language economies of scale is the cost advantage gained by the manufacturers when they increase the size and scale of the manufacturing system. This means to improve the profit margins, a manufacturer can mass produce them. So, decreasing the cost per item he has to put in and increasing the profit.
Large Scale Adoption Will Result In Significant Job Loss
Let us take for example, in a factory two type of scrap material exit the belt. A worker separates the two and places them in two different containers. If now the company engineer automates this system by placing some kind of separating machine at the exit, then the owner can remove this worker, resulting in the loss 0f job by the poor worker. So an innovation in the present technology or the process ends up taking away jobs amongst the masses.
This has happened throughout the human history. It happened when industries automated their processes, the same happened during the Industrial Revolution, during the Digital Revolution, and surely will happen in the future too. The machine operators will lose their jobs with the development and availability of 3D printers.
3D printing is also known as additive manufacturing, which means building in additive fashion i.e. layer by layer addition of material from the ground up. While the technology is a major process breakthrough, there is a very limited number of materials today which allows 3D printing.
Some materials in which 3D printing is done are – ABS plastic, polyamide, epoxy resins, steel, wax, titanium and some more. The list seems interesting but very limited.
How small can you go in 3D printing? If you’re using a typical desktop 3D printer (or an industrial Stratasys FDM printer), the nozzle is about 0.35 mm in diameter. This means the sharpest outside corner that can reproduce is also .35mm in diameter, we cannot produce dimension less than this. On other precise systems, you could reasonably expect this figure to be around 0.116 to 0.175 mm in diameter.
Cost of Buying and Setting up A 3D Printer Is Very High
The cost factor is the biggest disadvantage of 3D printing. Yes, it is true that over its whole life a 3D printer pays for itself more than once, but the initial cost still remains something which needs to be put in once, at a time. Since the initial cost is such a high, the risk of setting a costly business comes free of cost.
For example, the top end 3D printing devices can cost between $300,000 and $2 million. Even the consumable items can end up costing a very high price ranging from $100 to $200 for every pound of material consumed.
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